White Pine Cone Beetle Biological Control
Conophthorus coniperda (Schwarz)
From: Frank, J. Howard and John L. Foltz, 1997, Classical Biological Control of Pest Insects of Trees in the Southern United States: A Review and Recommendations, USDA, FS, FHTET-96-20.
Native: NC, VA and North.
Resident natural enemies: Braconidae: Spathius aphenges Matthews -- not in South; Bethylidae: Cephalonomyia hyalinipennis Ashmead -- FL and North and West.
Biological control attempts: None known.
Biological control possibilities: Natural enemies of C. ponderosae Hopkins, which occurs from southwestern Canada to Durango and Michoacan in Mexico, might be evaluated for their potential as biological control agents of C. coniperda in the South. If useful natural enemies are not found, then it would be worthwhile looking at natural enemies of the closely related genera Pityophthorus, Gnatholeptus, and Pityotrichus. The large genus Pityophthorus (over 300 species worldwide) is very closely related, and its various species are distributed not only from Alaska to Argentina, but also in temperate Europe and Asia, and Africa. See also Dendroctonus frontalis and Ips calligraphus.
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