Silviculture Can Reduce Losses from the Southern Pine Beetle
Southern Pine Beetle Handbook
United States Department of Agriculture, Combined Forest Pest Research and Development Program, Southern Pine Beetle Handbook, Agriculture Handbook No. 576 - Issued December 1980
Promote Individual Tree Resistance
Favor Most Resistant Species
Some pine species are more resistant to SPB attack than others. Also, relative susceptibility of host types differs between geographic regions (table 2). Intermediate cuttings and reproduction methods should favor species that are best suited to the site and most resistant to SPB attack.
Remove High-Hazard Trees.-
Every stand has some damaged or weakened trees that are highly susceptible to SPB attack. This damage can result from lightning, logging, ice, or other destructive agents (fig. 4). Injured trees may also attract the black turpentine beetle, and Ips species. Susceptibility is greatest immediately following damage and tends to remove severely damaged trees should be completed as soon as possible.
|Figure 4. - Pines struck by lightning are attractive to bark beetles. (Photo courtesy of the South Carolina Commission of Forestry.)|
Extreme drought or flooding increases the probability of SPB attack in stands. There is little the forester can do to prevent these conditions, but losses may be minimized through frequent aerial detection flights over high-hazard stands during periods of extreme climatic stress. Infestations that do occur in these areas should be treated using approved control procedures.2
Table 2. - The susceptibility of pines to SPB attack for major geographic regions of the South.
|Levels of susceptibility||Coastal Plain||Piedmont||Southern Appalachian|
|Most resistant||Slash Longleaf||Virginia Loblolly||Virginia Eastern white|
|Most susceptible||Shortleaf Loblolly||Shortleaf||Shortleaf Pitch|
2 For a discussion of SPB control tactics, see "Direct Control Methods for the Southern Pine Beetle," by Swain and Remion (Agriculture Handbook 575).
Developed by the University of Georgia Bugwood Network in cooperation with USDA Forest Service - Forest Health Protection, USDA APHIS PPQ, Georgia Forestry Commission, Texas Forest Service
and the Pests and Diseases Image Library - Australia
Last updated August 2018
www.barkbeetles.org version 2.0