Distinguishing Immatures of Insect Associates of Southern Pine Bark Beetles
Southern Pine Beetle Handbook
United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Cooperative State Research Service, Southern Pine Beetle Handbook, Agriculture Handbook No. 641. October 1985.
Roles of Insect Associates
Past research concerning southern pine bark beetles has reported on many insect species presumed or observed to be predaceous or parasitic. However, more recent studies have reduced the list of insects believed to cause appreciable beetle morality. The predominant species known to be predators and parasites as well as those that are frequently encountered co-inhabiting the pine phloem and xylem are listed in the appendix. However, a few of the species lists as predaceous or parasitic may cause only limited bark beetle mortality.
Developed by the University of Georgia Bugwood Network in cooperation with USDA Forest Service - Forest Health Protection, USDA APHIS PPQ, Georgia Forestry Commission, Texas Forest Service
and the Pests and Diseases Image Library - Australia
Last updated August 2018
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